Photo Of The Day

Photo: Corbis Images. 21 January 1957. "Mad Bomber" George Metesky Smiling in Jail. Bomber Behind Bars---Happy Terrorist.--Obviously enjoying the white light of publicity, George Metesky grins happily from behind the bars of Waterbury jail after his arrest as the "Mad Bomber" who had terrorized the New York area for more than 16 years with his planted homemade bombs.

Photo: Corbis Images. 21 January 1957. “Mad Bomber” George Metesky Smiling in Jail. Bomber Behind Bars—Happy Terrorist.–Obviously enjoying the white light of publicity, George Metesky grins happily from behind the bars of Waterbury jail after his arrest as the “Mad Bomber” who had terrorized the New York area for more than 16 years with his planted homemade bombs.

Mad Bomber Arrested!

Serial killers must continuously kill simply because they are addicted to the feeling they get through the process. They’re rationalizing every aspect of their behaviour so they don’t see any good reason to stop doing what they’re doing. That’s when the headache for investigators comes into the game – how to get even a smallest idea of who the killer may be?

This kind of problem solver is criminal profiling, also known as psychological profiling. The origins of criminal profiling date back to the Middle Ages, where the inquisitors were trying to profile heretics. In 19th century, the potential of profiling was realized by Hans Gross, Alphonse Bertillon, Jacob Fries, Cesare Lombroso, but their researches were generally considered to be prejudiced.

Psychiatrist Dr. James A. Brussel is credited to be an author of the first systematic profile within a criminal investigation, while chasing a person, best known as “Mad Bomber”, responsible for a series of indiscriminate bombings spanning 16 years in New York.

On November 16, 1940, an unexploded bomb was found on a window ledge of the Consolidated Edison building in Manhattan. It was wrapped in a very neatly hand-written note that read,

CON EDISON CROOKS-THIS IS FOR YOU.

The police were baffled; surely whoever delivered the bomb would know that the note would be destroyed if the bomb detonated. Was the bomb meant to not go off? Was the person stupid …or was he just sending a message?

No discernible fingerprints were found on the device and a brief search of company records brought no leads, so the police treated the case as an isolated incident by a crackpot, possibly someone who had a grievance with “Con-Ed,” the huge company that proved New York City with all its gas and electric power.

Nearly a year later, another unexploded bomb was found lying in the street a few blocks from the Con Ed building, this one with an alarm clock fusing mechanism that had not been wound. Again the police had no leads and again they filed the case away -there were larger problems at hand: the war in Europe was escalating and U.S. involvement seemed imminent. Sure enough, three months later the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour, triggering America’s entry into World War II.

Shortly thereafter a strange, neatly written letter arrived at the police headquarters in Manhattan:

I WILL MAKE NO MORE BOMB UNITS FOR THE DURATION OF THE WAR-MY PATRIOTIC FEELINGS HAVE MADE ME DECIDE THIS-I WILL BRING THE CON EDISON TO JUSTICE-THEY WILL PAY FO RTHEIR DASTARDLY DEEDS…F.P.

True to his (or her) words, no more bombs showed up during the war, or for five years after that. But in that time at least 16 threat letters, all from “F.P.” were delivered to Con Ed, as well as to movie theaters, the police, and even private individuals. Still, there were no bombs …until March 29, 1950.

That day, a third unexploded bomb much more advanced than the previous two was found on the lower level of Grand Central Station. “F.P.” seemed to be sending the message that he (or she) had been honing his (or her) bomb-building skills over the last decade. Still, so far none of them had exploded. And police wondered: were these all just empty threats? That question was answered a month later when a bomb tore apart a phone booth at the New York Public Library. Over the next two years, four more bombs exploded around New York City. And try as they might to downplay the threat, the police couldn’t keep the press from running with the story. “The Mad Bomber” started to dominate headlines.

More bombs were found, and more angry letters -some neatly written, others created from block letters clipped from magazines- promised to continue the terror until Con Edison was “BROUGHT TO JUSTICE.” Meanwhile, copy cats were sending mock ups of pipe bombs and notes purporting to be from the “Mad Bomber” which muddled the police investigation.

Letters from Mad Bomber.

Letters from Mad Bomber.

Heading up the case was Police Inspector Howard E. Finney. He and his detectives had used every conventional police method they knew of, but the Mad Bomber was too smart for them. In December 1956, after a powerful explosion injured six people in Brooklyn’s Paramount Theatre, Inspector Finney decided to do something unconventional.

Finney called in Dr. James A Brussel, a brilliant psychiatrist who had worked with the military and the FBI. Brussel’s method included the diagnosis of unknown offender’s mental disorders from their crime scenes. He would infer the characteristics of an unknown offender by comparing their criminal behaviour to his own experience with the behaviour of patients who shared similar disorders. Up until this time it had been historically uncommon for psychiatrist to apply their expertise to investigative matters

Brussel had an uncanny understanding of the criminal mind, and like everyone else in New York, this eloquent, pipe-smoking psychiatrist was curious about what made the Mad Bomber tick. But because none of the letters had been released to the press, Brussel knew very little about the case. That all changed when police handed him the evidence they had gathered since 1941.

The pressure was on: citizens were growing more panicked with each new bomb, and more impatient with the cops’ inability to catch the Mad Bomber. After poring through letters, phone call transcripts and police reports, and studying the unexploded bombs, Dr. Brussel presented this profile to Inspector Finney:

It’s a man. Paranoiac. He’s middle-aged, forty to fifty years old, introvert. Well-proportioned in build. He’s single. A loner, perhaps living with an older female relative. He is very neat, tidy, and clean-shaven. Good education, but of foreign extraction. Skilled mechanic, neat with tools. Not interested in women. He’s a Slav. Religious. Might flare up at work violently when criticized. Possible motive: discharge or reprimand. Feels superior to his critics. Resentment keeps growing. His letters are posted from Westchester, and he wouldn’t be stupid enough to post them from where he lives. He probably mails the letters between his home and New York City. One of the biggest concentration of Poles is in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and to get from there to New York, you have to pass through Westchester. He has had a bad disease -possibly heart trouble.

Finney was impressed …but sceptical. His team had drawn some of the same conclusions, but even so, there had to be thousands of middle-aged men who fit that profile. What good would it do?

“I think you ought to publicize the description I’ve given you,” suggested Dr. Brussel. “Publicize the whole Bomber investigation, in fact. Spread it in the newspapers, on radio and television.” Finney disagreed. It was standard procedure to keep details of investigations away from the press. But Brussel maintained that if they handled the case correctly, the Mad Bomber would do most of the work for them. He said that, unconsciously, “he wants to be found out.” Finney finally agreed. As he left the office, Brussel added one more thing.

“When you catch him, he’ll be wearing a double-breasted suit, and it will be buttoned.”

So the papers published the profile and the chase went into high gear. As Finney predicted, “a million crackpots” came out of the woodwork, all claiming to be the Mad Bomber, but none of them had the Mad Bomber’s skill or his distinctively neat handwriting. A slew of legitimate leads came from concerned citizens about their odd neighbours, yet nothing solid surfaced. Still, Brussel was confident that the real Bomber’s arrogance would be his undoing.

The Mad Bomber’s response to his case being made public: he took his terror a step further. The bombs kept coming and the letters got more brazen.”F.P.” even called Dr. Brussel on the phone and told him to lay off or he would “be sorry.” Brussel had him exactly where he wanted him.

George Meteskys Mug Shot.

George Meteskys Mug Shot.

The final clue came when police received a letter revealing the date that began the Mad Bomber’s misery: September 5, 1931 -almost ten years before the first bomb was found. Brussel immediately ordered a search of Con Ed’s personnel files from that era. An office assistant named Alice Kelly found a neatly written letter from a former employee named George Metesky who had promised that Con Ed would pay for their “DASTARDLY DEEDS.”

The police traced Metesky to what the neighbourhood children called the “crazy house” on Fourth Street in Waterbury, Connecticut, just beyond Westchester County, New York. When they arrived, George Metesky was wearing …pyjamas. He greeted them warmly and freely admitted to being the Mad Bomber. He even showed them his bomb-making workshop in his garage.

They told him to get dressed for his trip to the station.


Mad Bomber seized

He returned wearing …a double-breasted suit, buttoned.

So how was Dr. Brussel able to provide such an accurate description?

It was pretty evident that the Mad Bomber was a man. In those days, very few women would have had the knowledge necessary to make bombs. Bomb-making is, moreover, a classic behaviour of paranoid males.

Because 85% of known paranoids had stocky, muscular builds, Brussel added it to the profile. Metesky had a stocky, muscular build.

Male paranoiacs’ have trouble relating to other people, especially women, and usually live with older, matriarchal-type women who will “mother” them. Metesky lived with two older sisters.

Another clue to Metesky’s sexual inadequacy, Brussel claimed, was his lettering. His script was perfect except for the “W”s -instead of connecting “V”s that would have been consistent with the rest of the letters, Metesky connected two “U”s, which Brussel saw a representing women’s breasts.

Brussel concluded that Metesky was between 40 and 50 years old because paranoia takes years to develop, and based on when the first bomb was found, Metesky had to have been well down the road. Brussel was close -Metesky was 54.

What led Brussel to believe that Metesky did not live in New York City was his use of the term “Con Edison.” New Yorkers call it “Con Ed.”

Metesky’s language identified him as middle European, too. His use of “dastardly deeds,” as well as some other phrases, was a sign of someone with Slavic roots. There was a high concentration of Poles in southern Connecticut, and Brussel connected the dots.

Paranoids believe that the world conspires against them, so Brussel knew that something traumatic must have happened to Metesky. He was right. On September 5, 1931, Metesky was injured in a boiler explosion at a Con Ed plant. He complained of headaches, but doctors could find no sign of injury. After a year of sick pay and medical benefits, Metesky was fired. A failed lawsuit sent him over the edge, and he began plotting his revenge.

Metesky thought he was never properly compensated for his lost health and lost a series of efforts to get workman’s compensation.  He also later claimed to have tried to attract media publicity for his case but was ignored, just as he claimed his pleas to various government agencies were ignored.

Brussel also predicted that the Bomber would have a debilitating heart disease. He was close: Metesky suffered from a tubercular lung.

How did Brussel know what kind of suit Metesky would be wearing when he was arrested? Simple: Paranoids are neat freaks, as was apparent in his letters and bombs. He would wear nothing less than the most impeccable outfit of the day –a double-breasted suit, buttoned.
Glad i did it

George Metesky planted at least 33 bombs, of which 22 exploded, injuring 15 people. Bombs were left in phone booths, storage lockers, and restrooms in public buildings, including Grand Central Terminal, Pennsylvania Station, Radio City Music Hall, the New York Public Library, the Port Authority Bus Terminal, and the RCA Building, as well as in the New York City Subway. Miraculously, no one was killed. Metesky said that was never his intention. “F.P.” he explained, stood for “Fair Play.”

On April 18, 1957, George Metesky was found mentally unfit to stand trial and was committed to the Matteawan Hospital for the Criminally Insane. In 1973 he was deemed cured and was released. Metesky lived out the remainder of his days in his Waterbury home, where he died in 1994 at the age of 90. Dr. Brussel gained celebrity status for his role in the case; today he’s considered the father of modern psychological profiling in criminal investigations.

Metesky made his pipe bombs using pipe he machined himself and gunpowder, something anyone can buy in sporting goods stores, as the explosive. A favourite method of his was to slice an upholstered seat in a movie theatre and place the bomb inside the cushion where it was hidden.

Although Metesky’s bombs never killed anybody, it was more because of strange luck than “Fair Play” and there was a huge sense of fear that it was just a matter of time. (Police called it a “miracle” that his theater bombs never took any lives.) Even worse, Metesky may have paved the way for others who were more successful in their terrible exploits. According to investigators, both the “Zodiac Killer,” who killed at least six people -some with bombs- in the San Francisco area in the 1970s, and Ted “Unibomber” Kaczynski, who killed three people in the 1980s and 1990s with package bombs, were inspired by New York City’s Mad Bomber.

Metesky may not have killed anyone, but the fact that he did not, was sheer dumb luck. In all other respects his reign of fear is a textbook case of terrorism. There was nothing religious or ideological about his motive–it was just one sick man who had been wronged and decided to take it out on the rest of New York City. There’s a sad lesson in here somewhere.

“One thing I can’t understand is why the newspaper labelled me the Mad Bomber. That was unkind.” -George Metesky

Dr. Brussel assisted New York City police from 1957 to 1972 and profiled many crimes, including murder. Dr. Brussel also worked with other investigative agencies. Brussel’s profile led the Boston Police to the apprehension of Albert DeSalvo, the notorious serial sex murderer known as the Boston Strangler. The media dubbed Dr. Brussel as “Sherlock Holmes of the Couch.”

 George Metesky – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George Metesky | American terrorist | Britannica.com

A 16-Year Hunt For New York’s ‘Mad Bomber’ : NPR


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