Photo of the Day

Photo: Robert B. Rearick, Loma Linda University Medical Center. On November 8, 1984, 13 days after her historic cross-species heart transplant surgery at Loma Linda University Medical Center, Baby Fae (25 days old) listens to her mother’s voice on the telephone. Her mother, who had a cold, was unable to be in the room with her. Baby Fae, who was fussing just prior to the phone call, immediately quieted after hearing her mother’s voice.

The Story of Baby Fae

The First Baby to Receive a Heart Transplant From A Baboon

This story as it took the world by storm in the 1980s, making headlines across news sources everywhere. The video below is actually a trailer for the award-winning documentary Stephanie’s Heart: The Story of Baby Fae. The documentary takes an in-depth look at the many people and events surrounding Baby Fae and the highly experimental procedure she underwent in order to live. The film is most unique because it tells the story primarily from the perspective of Baby Fae’s mother, Teresa Beauclair, who chose to remain anonymous during the hype of Baby Fae in the 1980’s.

She was just 5 pounds, 9 ounces and 19 inches long when she was born. Stephanie Fae Beauclair—known as Baby Fae to protect family privacy—was born at 6:55 a.m. on October 14, 1984. A baboon heart replaced her own failing heart on October 26. For 21 days, the world watched breathlessly as she fought to live.

The transplantation of a baboon heart into a human infant shocked the world on many levels.

Pediatric cardiothoracic surgeon Leonard Bailey, MD, had shared his research with cross-species heart transplantation at national and international scientific conferences. But prestigious academic and medical research centers around the world seemed surprised that he actually tried it—and perhaps a little envious.

Animal rights advocates paraded around Loma Linda University Medical Center, holding high their placards while wearing their animal-skin accessories—seemingly oblivious to the mixed messages.

National and international media organizations swarmed the tiny city of Loma Linda, capturing every visual, cheering on the little infant, and then questioning the motives of Bailey, Loma Linda University Health, and even Baby Fae’s parents, as well as the ethics of the historic surgery.

Baby Fae’s parents were unfazed by the controversy.

‘Someone riding up in the elevator with Faes Mother asked her what you think of all this (controversy), ‘…’ her answer was, ‘It’s all bull. They don’t know what they’re talking about.”

Neither the child nor her parents were publicly identified initially.

In response to reporters’ questions, the doctors said the parents were given a complete explanation of alternatives to a baboon transplant to correct the baby’s hypoplastic left heart syndrome, such as corrective surgery or a human heart transplant.

The doctors said they did not discuss a human heart transplant because none was available.

‘To offer a human heart isn’t feasible,’ they’re not available. One wasn’t offered. One can’t offer what doesn’t exist.’

Corrective surgery was offered as an alternative, but doctors did not think chances for success were good.

Medical ethicists suddenly found their opinions sought by the news media as the issues of cross-species transplantation were examined from every angle.

The story of Baby Fae thrust Loma Linda University Health into the international spotlight and changed the organization. Since 1984, Bailey and his colleagues have performed hundreds of infant-to-infant heart transplants, and some of his “kids” are now in their 20s with children of their own.

Four adults have had heart transplant from a primate, but Baby Fae was the first infant. The longest living of the adults was a South African man who died 3 days after receiving the heart of a chimpanzee.

Baby Fae’s Story: The First Baby To Receive A Heart Transplant From A Baboon. Photo: SF Globe

Most critics of such experimental surgeries were certain that a human patient’s body would reject an animal organ.  However, the drug cyclosporine, introduced in 1979, inhibited foreign tissue rejection, dramatically increasing the patient survival rate in the early Eighties.  Pig heart valves had been successfully substituted for failing human heart valves.  Still, many medical experts preferred a corrective surgery procedure developed by Dr. William Norwood at Philadelphia’s Children Hospital, which had a 40 percent success rate in transferring left ventricle functions in a hypoplastic heart to the right ventricle.  But Dr. Bailey had his supporters, too, including Christiaan Barnard, the South African pioneer in heart transplant surgery.

Animal-rights activists were up in arms.  People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and several other groups demonstrated at Loma Linda University Medical Center.  Interviewed by U.S. News & World Report, a North Carolina State University professor of philosophy complained that even “if animal-organ transplants were good for humanity, they are not good for the animals.”  The Seventh Day Adventist Church found the sacrifice of animal life for the sake of human survival perfectly acceptable.  Other religious groups, however, disapproved of replacing a human heart with that of an animal on spiritual grounds.

Baby Fae entered the world by accident, and for the girl known as Baby Fae, the fates seemed uncommonly cruel. Born prematurely on Oct. 14 at 6:55 a.m., she was the daughter of a 23-year-old, unemployed, unmarried woman who had moved to California from her home in Kansas, in part to get away from problems she created by issuing bad checks. Though she and Baby Fae’s father had lived together for five years, they were separated at a critical moment—the baby’s birth. Worse still, the 5.9-pound girl was born with a crippled heart.

But within four days, as the pediatrician predicted, her colour yellowed and her breathing became more difficult. It was just at this time that doctors from the Loma Linda University Medical Center called with the suggestion that she might be saved by a transplant of a baboon’s heart. Her parents, reunited by the crisis, agreed, and on Oct. 26, Dr. Leonard Bailey, a pediatric cardiac surgeon, inserted the walnut-size heart of a 7-month-old baboon into the infant’s chest. The operation proved immensely controversial, sparking demonstrations by outraged animal lovers and vehement attacks by medical ethicists. Yet, when Baby Fae’s picture was televised around the world, her plight touched people everywhere. A fragile being with a surgical tape running the length of her upper torso, she seemed to grab greedily for a chance at even the most difficult of lives.

“You know, after that morning, our daughter Fae suddenly became this famous little girl, and all the demonstrators started in about the baboon heart, and how awful it was to sacrifice this animal for a scientific experiment, and was it right for a human being to have an animal heart. Well, I’ll tell you this—if there had been a human heart available and I had a choice of that or a baboon heart, I would have chosen the heart that was the most compatible with her, whatever one it was. There are a lot of sentimental ways of talking about the heart but it’s just a pump. The soul is not in the heart. The soul of a human is in the brain.

I really slept that night, knowing that my baby had come through the surgery. The nurses seemed amazed at how I was going through this so well. Like I said, the Lord helped me with my prayers. And I never had any doubt that we had done the right thing. How can it be wrong to try to save a little girl’s life?”

Baby Fae was born prematurely with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, a lethal underdevelopment of the left side of the heart. In a controversial and daring attempt to save her life, Dr. Leonard L. Bailey and his surgical team at Loma Linda University Medical Center transplanted the heart of a donor baboon into Baby Fae’s chest on Oct. 26, 1984, 12 days after her birth. Photo: Baby Fae Infant Heart Anniversary Resources Loma Linda University

Stephanie Fae Beauclair, now commonly known as Baby Fae, was born in October of 1984 with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a birth defect that inhibits regular blood flow throughout the heart.

Though babies with the condition were expected to live for about two weeks, and Fae’s mother was given the option of letting her die in a hospital or at home, Dr. Bailey had another option in mind.

Other than her heart, Fae was in good health. A transplant would fix the problem, but this was new territory: even though transplant surgery had come a long way since the first human-human heart transplant was performed in 1967, no one had yet completed a successful infant heart transplant, mainly due to the lack of infant donor hearts. Given that shortage, Bailey, a pediatric cardiac surgeon at Loma Linda University Medical Center in California, had spent seven years researching xenografts, or transplants from other species.

Bailey’s research included, “more than 150 transplants in sheep, goats, and baboons, many of them between species.” The first simian-human transplant had been performed in 1964 but the patient died a few hours after his surgery and only a few more were attempted after that; nonetheless, Bailey received permission to perform such a transplant on Baby Fae.

As 12-day-old Fae’s condition began to deteriorate on Oct. 26, 1984, the medical team choose a donor baboon and began the transplant operation. At 11:35 a.m. Fae’s “new heart began to beat spontaneously. ‘There was absolute awe,’” recalled Sandra Nehlsen-Cannarella, a transplantation immunologist working on Fae. “I don’t think there was a dry eye in the room.”

Except for the gauze-covered wound stretching almost the length of her torso, the tiny, dark-haired baby girl might have been just any infant. Lying in her crib with a pacifier close at hand, she gave a couple of gaping yawns. She delicately stretched her scrawny arms in weariness. And mostly she slept. But, as television viewers got their first glimpse of the newborn known only as Baby Fae, it was her visibly heaving chest that stole the show.

There was no mistaking the pulsations of life and no forgetting that the power source was the freshly implanted heart of a young baboon. One week after the historic transplant operation at Loma Linda University Medical Center in Southern California, the first infant—though not the first person—to receive a simian heart was reported to be doing remarkably well.

“All vital signs are still good, and there’s no sign of rejection,” said Hospital Spokeswoman Patti Gentry, noting that Baby Fae was “just gulping down her formula.” Outside the hospital, there was wonder and excitement over this latest medical marvel, but the enthusiasm was dampened somewhat by controversy.

Antivivisectionists around the country and abroad protested what they called “ghoulish tinkering” with human and animal life. “This is medical sensationalism at the expense of Baby Fae, her family and the baboon,” charged Lucy Shelton of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. The group was one of several that demonstrated outside the Loma Linda hospital. The medical community, though normally receptive to technical innovation, was sharply divided.

“There has never been a successful cross-species transplant,” declared University of Minnesota Surgeon John Najarian, one of the country’s leading pediatric-transplant specialists. “To try it now is merely to prolong the dying process. I think Baby Fae is going to reject her heart.” Others defended the experiment. “It’s very easy to sit back and be negative when a new treatment is announced,” said Dr. John Collins, chief of cardiac surgery at Boston’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “If we all were afraid to attempt the untried, we would have no new treatments.”

Dr. Leonard Bailey and his team performed the Baby Fae heart transplant 25 years ago. He now serves as chief of surgery at Loma Linda Children’s Hospital. [photos: courtesy LLUMC]

Dr. Leonard Bailey, the paediatric cardiac surgeon who treated Fae, over the years had seen dozens of infants with this defect die, generally within two weeks of birth. While a transplant from a human donor could theoretically be used to help such babies, Bailey was discouraged by the drastic shortage of infant hearts. Years ago he began investigating the possibility of using hearts from other species, or xenografts. He performed more than 150 transplants in sheep, goats and baboons, many of them between species.

The year before this operation, after what Bailey called “months of agonizing,” the Loma Linda institutional review board gave him preliminary approval to implant a baboon heart in a human infant. The final go-ahead came just two days before Baby Fae’s surgery. “There is evidence that the chimpanzee, orangutan or gorilla may be a better donor,” Bailey noted, “but they are either an endangered species or don’t procreate well in captivity.”

Baby Fae, who had no defects other than her hypoplastic heart, was the first infant to come to Bailey’s attention who met the criteria for his experiment. As in the case of the late Barney Clark, who in 1982 became the world’s first recipient of a permanent artificial heart, an elaborate consent form had been prepared. Fae’s parents signed the form once, then thought over their decision for 20 hours before signing it the required second time. According to the hospital, the couple were well informed of the risks and the alternatives. Meanwhile, Sandra Nehlsen-Cannarella, a transplantation immunologist brought in from New York City’s Montefiore Medical Center, conducted five days of laboratory tests to determine which of six baboons at Loma Linda most closely matched Baby Fae’s tissue type. However, before the tests were complete, the infant’s heart suddenly deteriorated and her lungs filled with fluid. The dying child was swiftly transferred to a respirator and given drugs to keep her blood circulating. The measures were able to sustain her long enough for a baboon donor to be chosen and surgery to begin.

Baby Fae was not the first person to receive the heart of an ape. In 1964, when heart transplants were a new idea, University of Mississippi Surgeon James Hardy replaced the heart of a 68-year-old man with that of a chimpanzee, but the patient died within a few hours.

In 1977 Christiaan Barnard, the South African pioneer of heart transplants, made two attempts to use simian hearts: in a 26-year-old woman, who survived for only six hours, and in a 59-year-old man, who died four days after surgery. In each case, Barnard “piggybacked” the animal organ onto the patient’s own heart to act as a supplementary pump. He decided to abandon the technique because of the poor results and the risks of becoming “emotionally attached” to donor chimpanzees, which, he says “are very much like humans.”

Barnard is nonetheless enthusiastic about the Baby Fae case and has no qualms about the use of baboons, which, he says, are shot on sight by South African farmers, who consider them a nuisance. Perhaps the strangest example of simian-human surgery was tried in 1975 by Cardiologist Magdi Yacoub in England.

In an effort to sustain the life of a one-year-old boy during extensive surgery, Yacoub connected the child’s circulatory system to the heart of a living baboon. Both the boy and the animal died during the procedure. In general, the obstacle to using animal organs is that the human body quickly rejects foreign tissue. What gave Leonard Bailey hope of better results was the advent of the wonder-drug cyclosporine.

Developed by Sandoz Ltd. in Switzerland, cyclosporine inhibits organ rejection by partly suppressing the immune system. It is considered safer than earlier drugs used for this purpose because it is less likely to destroy the body’s ability to fight infection. Since its first use in the U.S. in 1979 it has revolutionized transplant surgery, raising the one-year survival rate of heart recipients from 65% in the 1970s to 80%. Bailey believed that by focusing on the treatment of newborns, whose immune systems are not yet fully developed, he could further reduce the risks of rejection. Says he: “A newborn is a gracious host.”

Yet even as Baby Fae seemed to be demonstrating Bailey’s point, critics charged that xenografts are still too uncertain and that other treatments should have been considered. Dr. Moneim Fadali, a cardiovascular surgeon at the University of California, Los Angeles, was one of several physicians to suggest that the decision to use an animal organ may have been “a matter of bravado” and that a human heart “would have offered the child a better chance of survival.” Loma Linda Surgeon David Hinshaw explained that he and his colleagues believed that the hope of finding a compatible human heart in time to save the dying Fae was “almost nonexistent.” Indeed, infant hearts are so seldom available that transplants into very young children are rarely attempted. Ironically, the heart of a two-month-old infant was available the day of Fae’s operation. Transplant coordinators from the Regional Organ Procurement Agency at UCLA called Loma Linda hospital to offer the infant’s kidneys (the heart was not discussed because Loma Linda does not have a human-heart-transplant program). When word of the potential human donor became public last week, Loma Linda officials explained that the call from the procurement agency had come after the baboon heart was implanted, that the heart of a two-month-old might have been too big for Fae, and that it would have taken too long to complete compatibility testing. Eventually hospital officials admitted that they simply had not considered the possibility of a human donor.

Many surgeons lay down the scalpel after age 60. But in 2009, for Dr. Leonard Bailey who, was 66, had garnered international fame in 1984 after transplanting a baboon’s heart into an infant girl, nearly every day is still another operating opportunity.

The days of cross-species organ transplants are gone due to controversies over possible infections. But 33 years ago, that baboon-to-human heart transplant paved the way for the world’s first human-to-human heart transplant in a child a year later. Loma Linda University Medical Center is still performing successful cases of pediatric heart transplants. One of those children is even now in medical school.

“The majority of these children were programmed from conception to not be in this world ever more than just birthing and dying,” Bailey said. “Their lifespan was in days. When you think about it it’s really quite amazing the quite large cadre of kids who have grown up.”

Today, as more is known about complex congenital heart diseases, more infants can have their hearts surgically reconstructed instead of having to undergo a transplant, he says.

Many of the lives now saved through such procedures were made possible by a life that ultimately wasn’t. In 1984, Teresa Beauclair visited Loma Linda University Medical Center with her infant daughter Stephanie, who suffered from hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, an underdevelopment of the heart’s left side.

“In those days, the advice to parents was to leave the baby here to die or take it home to die,” Bailey recalls.

Before Stephanie and her mother had visited Loma Linda, Bailey had performed more than 150 heart transplants during six years of research in sheep, goats and baboons, many of them between species. In absence of an available donor heart from another human, Teresa made the decision to allow the experimental surgery on her daughter.

The patient’s middle name, Fae, was chosen to provide anonymity for her and her mother. On October 26, 1984, Bailey and his team transplanted a baboon’s heart into “Baby Fae,” as she became known to the media. The procedure sharply divided the medical community and brought protest from animal rights groups, who called the procedure “ghoulish tinkering” with human and animal life, media reports stated.

Baby Fae lived for 21 days, two weeks longer than any other previous baboon heart transplant recipient.

On the day of her death, the surgeon made a rare public appearance to inform members of the press gathered outside the hospital. Reports said he was nearly breaking with emotion. “Infants with heart disease yet to be born will some day soon have the opportunity to live, thanks to the courage of this infant and her parents”

The media storm surrounding the 1984 case kept Bailey mostly in the hospital working on the case. Some accused him of solely seeking publicity. Bailey now says he thinks the press did a decent job.

“It was all of a sudden, it was happening and they had to be on it with very little preparation,” he says. “The bottom line is they made such a big issue of it that a year later we were able to do an allograph, which is a human-to-human heart.”

Stephanie‘s Heart: The Story of Baby Fae – Hour Version

In 1984, Teresa Beauclair, the mother of Baby Fae, chose to remain anonymous in the midst of one of the biggest news stories of the 1980s. Stephanie’s Heart is a documentary film that tells Teresa’s story and that of her baby daughter, Stephanie Fae.

The surgeon from Takoma Park, Md., has devoted his career to trying to help victims of hypoplastic heart. A Seventh-day Adventist, he was educated at Loma Linda University Medical School, the only Adventist medical college in the world. Bailey had first considered using xenografts during his residency at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children, where, he admits, the idea “drew snickers.” When he tried to develop the procedure at Loma Linda, he found it difficult to get his research papers published and impossible to get funding. “I felt rather lonely,” he reflected. “People didn’t understand the importance of this; they weren’t watching babies die.” Ultimately a research fund was set up by 20 physicians at Loma Linda, who contributed part of their salary each month. In seven years they raised more than $1 million.

Years later, Baileys goal was to continue treating congenital heart disease in children and strengthen the growing department. He also wanted to remain an active family man and maintain his health. Ten years ago he went under the knife himself after being diagnosed with prostate cancer. He says the experience was frightening at first, but he came to terms with it. Now he’s beyond a reasonable risk of recurrence, he reports.

“You know what happens to you, psychologically? You think ‘I wonder if it’s coming back,’ or ‘I wonder what that pain was.’ That isn’t to say that I would be necessarily afraid to die … I’m just not ready to hang it up here yet.”

Bailey says he’s able to stay spiritually grounded, even when he loses patients.

“It’s always an emotional and dreadful experience. But it actually strengthens my faith. In my view that’s part of life. There are two things certain in biology: birth and death.”

Baby Fae’s Baboon to Human Heart Transplant, Photo AP.

The legacy of the pioneering infant heart transplantation at Loma Linda University Medical Center remains today in the thousands of children worldwide who lead quality lives today after successfully receiving new hearts. Photo courtesy of Loma Linda University Medical Center.

A few weeks after the death of Baby Fae, listening to a tape recording of Mendelssohn while he worked, Dr. William DeVries installed a Jarvik-7 artificial heart into William J. Schroeder at the Humana Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky.  But Schroeder wasn’t the first patient to have his malfunctioning heart replaced by a machine.  In 1982 a 62-year-old Seattle dentist named Barney Clark made medical history as the first permanent artificial heart recipient.  His surgeon was also DeVries, who on that occasion listened to Ravel’s Bolero during the operation. Clark survived for 112 days, dying of multi-organ system failure. DeVries pointed out that the artificial heart was just about the only thing in the patient’s body still functioning normally when Clark died. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Okayed another six artificial heart transplants.  Was the device destined for general use?  A 1982 study revealed that as many as 66,000 Americans annually could qualify for an artificial heart.

But how many patients could afford one?  The Jarvik-7, made of polyurethane and aluminum, cost $9,000, while the 375-lb. drive system, attached to the grapefruit-sized device by means of two air tubes entering the body beneath the ribcage, cost another $7,400. (Dr. Robert Jarvik, inventor of the artificial heart, anticipated that in ten years a 5-lb. battery pack would replace the original drive system, allowing the patient much more mobility.)  At the time of his death, Clark’s hospital bill was about $200,000.  The expense of such a procedure raised ethical questions.

In 1972 Congress had added kidney dialysis treatment to Medicare; by 1983 the government was spending $2 billion annually for 82,000 kidney patients.  It was estimated that Medicare benefits for 50,000 patients receiving artificial or transplanted hearts would cost $7.5 billion a year.  Most commercial insurers refused to cover what they viewed as experimental procedures — such as heart transplants.  High-tech medicine’s expensive experiments, as represented by Baby Fae and Barney Clark, forced medical experts and the public at large to debate the diversion of resources for the benefit of the few.

Was it fair to other sick people to expend so much in order to prolong the lives of heart disease victims for a few months or, at best, a few years?   (The heart transplant survival rate in 1984 was 80 percent for one year, 42 percent for five years.)  One hospital administrator calculated that William Schroeder’s hospital bill would pay for one week’s full treatment for 113 “ordinary” patients.  The cost of a liver transplant, averaging #135,000, would keep an inner city clinic open for a full year.  Other critics decried the fact that thousands were dying for lack of basic medical care while precious healthcare dollars were poured into what they considered to be extravagant novelties.  A Harris poll (January 1985) revealed that by a 55-41 margin Americans thought it would be better to spend the money on the many rather than the few. Nonetheless, Humana Hospital announced its intention to conduct twenty-five more artificial heart transplants at a cost of $1 million each.

Those who had a more positive view pointed out that much might be learned from such experiments.  A number of important tests were run on Schroeder, who accepted his role as human guinea pig in hopes that future patients would benefit.  And Barney Clark had similar hopes.  “If I can make a contribution,” he said, “my life will count for something.”  Proponents claimed that what seemed extravagant today could become commonplace tomorrow.  An example often used to support this position was the cardiac pacemaker, which years earlier had been the target of the same kind of criticism leveled at Barney Clark’s artificial heart and Baby Fae’s xenograft during the Eighties.

By 1985 the FDA had decided to permit the use of artificial hearts only as a temporary measure in emergency situations until a human heart transplant could be performed.  By that time William Schroeder had survived 42 weeks, but suffered two strokes.  (He would die in 1986.)  Two other recipients of a Jarvik-7 device also had strokes.  Michael Drummond showed signs of a mild stroke days after receiving an artificial heart, his device was replaced with the heart of a motorcycle accident victim.  By 1986 heart transplants were becoming relatively common; the number had increased from 36 in 1980 to 730 in 1986.  More private insurers were covering the procedure, and about 80 hospitals performed them.  The government agreed to fund 65 transplants a year through Medicare, at a cost of $5 million.  The problem by the late Eighties was a shortage of donor organs, and still is to this day.

The NZ Organ Donation System

Organ donation is a life-saving treatment and for people with organ failure it is the best, or only, option available. While New Zealand has made progress to increase organ donation and transplantation rates in recent years, we still have relatively low rates of deceased donation compared with many other countries.

Currently in New Zealand, the only way to inform everyone of your wish to be an organ donor is to register on your driving licence. Presently 48% of drivers are listed as donor on their licence.

Donor shortage is a problem worldwide, not just in New Zealand.

The main reasons for this shortage are that there have been so many advances in medicine that transplants are now a viable option for many people; and that there has been a decline in the numbers of people dying in the ‘right’ circumstances.

Right circumstances?

Even if you have ticked “donor” on your driver’s licence application, and told your family that you want to be a donor, that doesn’t automatically mean you will be one.

For example, if you die in a car crash it is unlikely that you can be a donor. The entire organ donor population comes from the Intensive Care Units. This is because oxygen and blood need to be pumped through the organs to stop them degenerating after death.

Nowadays, with the safety devices in cars, the chances are that you could walk away from a crash that in previous times would have caused severe head injuries resulting in later death. On the other hand, if the crash is so severe that death occurs at the scene organ donation is not an option.

A new Zealand death audit showed that only 38 people out of a possible 104 were donors in 1999-2000.
2 million people have ‘donor’ on their driving licences.

GiveLife NZ – The Current Donor System

Review of deceased organ donation and transplantation | Ministry of …

baby fae, who received a heart from baboon, dies after 20 days

Surgeon Bailey reflects 25 years after ‘Baby Fae’ :: Adventist News …

Baby Fae – Wikipedia

Baby Fae’s Baboon to Human Heart Transplant: How It Happened …

Baby Fae: A Child Loved and Lost – People

Baby Fae’s Story: The First Baby To Receive A Heart Transplant From …

Loma Linda University remembers Baby Fae – North American Division

A Baby, a Baboon Heart, and the Transplant Heard Round the World …

Surgeon Tells of ‘Catastrophic’ Decision : Baby Fae’s Death Traced to …

A Discussion of Ethical Issues in the Case of Baby Fae – ScholarSpace …

‘Baby Fae’ made heart transplant history 25 years ago at Loma Linda …

 


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