Photo of the Day

HAULING MUD. “Two of the mud buckets of the U.S. Ladder Dredge ‘Corozal.’ The capacity of each 54 c.f.,” read the handwritten notes at the bottom of Hallen’s 1911 image. National Geographic archive notes on the back add: “Stern view. Dredging depth, 50 feet, hopper capacity 1200 tonnes.” The “ladder dredge,” mounted on a barge, was used for underwater excavation. Each of these buckets would bring up a load of muck from the bottom. Flipping over at the top of the partially submerged ladder, it would dump its contents on the barge and then go back down underwater for more. Emptying the area around Culebra alone,  required moving enough material to build 26 Great Pyramids of Cheops. Dredging isn’t just a construction process. Sediment, carried by the water moving through the canal, builds up continuously on the canal’s bottom. Photo: Ernest Hallen

Building the Panama Canal

A canal was inevitable. A trip by boat from New York to San Francisco forced a luckless crew to sail around the tip of South America — a journey amounting to thousands of extra miles.

August 5, 1911, One hundred and six years ago, the Panama Canal officially opened when the ship Ancon traversed it from end to end—more than three decades after construction had started.

The narrow land connecting North and South America was always recognised as a potentially excellent short-cut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans – but it wasn’t until 1881 that construction began.

These incredible photographs show the toil that the 40,000 men who built it went through.

Despite facing issues such as solid mountainous terrain and powerful rivers, which would both need to be intersected and redirected for the canal to be built, the man behind the scheme, French diplomat Ferdinand De Lesseps, pushed ahead with the plans.

After a short while, the team began facing issues. It had become apparent that the sea-level canal De Lesseps favoured was physically impossible and the only workable plan would mean constructing a set of locks leading to an elevated canal – but De Lesseps refused and stuck to his original concept.

Thousands of workers died and the construction faced years of setbacks due to reoccurring floods and mudslides.

It was perilous work. By the time the raised canal plans were accepted an estimated 20,000 labourers’ lives were lost—many to diseases, including yellow fever, malaria and dysentery—during the French period of construction alone.

The canal project has always attracted insane optimism, corruption and disaster. Part of the danger of what became known as ‘the lure of Panama’ was that, from the very earliest days, it always looked so obvious and easy. Having established a colony on the isthmus’ Atlantic coast in September 1513, the Spanish conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa led a party of men into the interior to search for the rumoured Great Ocean across the mountains. Only a third survived the heat, insects, snakes and hostile Cuna Indians in the jungle, but on September 25th Balboa climbed a hill and ‘silent on a peak in Darien’ he turned one way and then the other; he could see both oceans quite clearly. He fell to his knees in prayer and then called up his men, ‘shewing them the great Maine sea heretofore unknown to the inhabitants of Europe, Aphrike, and Asia’.

The ‘discovery’ of the Pacific Ocean came with another realisation: that only a tantalisingly narrow strip of land blocked the way to the riches of the East, the motivation, of course, for the voyages of discovery in the first place. In Balboa’s party was an engineer, Alvaro de Saavedra, who suggested in a report to the Spanish King Charles V that although the search for a strait between the two oceans should continue, if it was not found, ‘yet it might not be impossible to make one’. By 1530 it was clear that no such waterway existed in the tropics and in 1534 Charles ordered that a survey be carried out with a view to excavation.

c. 1910. A map of the planned canal. IMAGE: CULTURE CLUB/GETTY IMAGES

The infrastructure of this railroad (formerly named the Panama Railway or Panama Rail Road) was of vital importance for the construction of the Panama Canal over a parallel route half a century later. The principal incentive for the building of the rail line was the vast increase in traffic to California owing to the 1849 California Gold Rush. Construction on the Panama Railroad began in 1850 and the first revenue train ran over the full length on January 28, 1855.

French attempts to build a canal through Panama (province of Colombia) had advanced further than is commonly understood. Led by Ferdinand de Lesseps-the builder of the Suez Canal in Egypt-the French began excavating in 1880. Malaria, yellow fever, and other tropical diseases conspired against the de Lesseps campaign and after 9 years and a loss of thousands of lives, the French attempt went bankrupt. A vast amount of work was done before the project failed. About one-third of the work done was of value to the American undertaking.

Claims that the Panama Canal was built “ahead of schedule, below budget, and with no corruption” cannot be true. Completion of the canal in 1914 was two years behind schedule, which must surely have increased costs. The monumental project was completed in ten years. Between 1903 and 1999 the United States invested about $3 billion in the Canal enterprise, approximately two-thirds of which had been recovered by century’s end.

The building of the Panama Canal involved three main problems — engineering, sanitation, and organisation. Its successful completion was due principally to the engineering and administrative skills of such men as John F. Stevens and Col. George W. Goethals and to the solution of extensive health problems by Col. William C. Gorgas.

Gorgas’s success in Panama was as dramatic as in Cuba: by 1906, he eradicated yellow fever and contained malaria during the canal’s 10-year construction period. Gorgas’s sanitary workers drained or covered with kerosene, all sources of standing water to prevent mosquitoes from laying their eggs and larvae from developing; fumigated areas infested with adult mosquitoes; isolated disease-stricken patients with screening and netting; and constructed quarantine facilities. In major urban centres, new domestic water systems provided running water to residents, thereby eliminating the need for collecting rain water in barrels, which had provided perfect breeding sites for mosquitoes carrying yellow fever.

The US government’s $20 million investment in the sanitation program also provided free medical care and burial services to thousands of employees. In addition, Gorgas’s sanitation department dispensed approximately one tonne of prophylactic quinine each year at 21 dispensaries along the Panama Canal route and added hospital cars to trains that crossed the Isthmus. Each year, hospitals treated approximately 32,000 workers, and 6,000 were treated in sick camps.

The engineering problems involved digging through the Continental Divide; constructing the largest earth dam ever built up to that time; designing and building the most massive canal locks ever envisioned; constructing the largest gates ever swung; and solving environmental problems of enormous proportions.

The American construction effort, which began in 1904, used the most modern technology in unique and innovative ways to make the construction of the canal possible. While mosquito hunters roamed the isthmus, U.S. engineers worked to develop a feasible canal design. The French plan for a sea-level canal was fraught with problems, the most significant of which was the one billion cubic yards of excavation required to reach sea-level at the Continental Divide. The French route also included fourteen crossings of the Chagres River. During storms, this muddy channel swelled to a raging torrent, drowning excavation sites and destroying machinery.

Plans that the canal would be completed within six years at an estimated cost of $120 million (£78 million) were scrapped and creators were hundreds of millions of pounds over budget, ruining the livelihood of 800,000 investors. In 1893, De Lesseps was arrested and convicted of fraud and maladministration. He died two years later age 89.

The new empire might require a fast move from the Atlantic to the Pacific by a naval squadron. Teddy Roosevelt decided that the time for action was at hand. The canal would be his legacy, and he would stop at nothing to get it.

Ten years on, Panama withdrew from Colombia, and the U.S. was rewarded with the rights to the canal. And after a few years, the ramped-up canal began to take shape – the Gatun Dam was built across the Chagres River to address the issue of powerful rivers that stood in the canals way. Enormous locks were constructed either side of the canals in 1913 and there was finally a traversable route between the two oceans. In 1914, French crane boat Alexandre La Valley made the first passage through the canal.

June 1912. A view of the Culebra Cut from the west bank. IMAGE: SSPL/GETTY IMAGES

LABOURERS ARRIVE FROM BARBADOS, 1909. By 1905, more than 17,000 construction workers were employed. West Indians —half of whom were from Barbados —totalled 20 percent of the workforce, accounting for more than all the Americans and Europeans combined. The West Indians earned about ten cents an hour, had the most difficult working conditions, and had the worst food and housing of all the labourers. Still, some found a measure of success. Many returned home with the money they had earned during the construction period, but others established families and stayed on as employees of the Panama Canal. Here, according to the photo’s notes, the S.S. Ancon arrives at the town of Cristóbal in September 1909, brimming with 1,500 labourers from Barbados.

ITALIAN CREW. Labour —cheaper than could be found in the United States or locally in Panama —arrived by the boatful from as far away as Europe. Some workers brought new ideas. Hired to do the arduous manual labour, Gallegos, or men from the Galacia region of Spain, were among the Europeans who brought with them ideas for labour organisation. No one ethnicity was hired in overabundance. Only a few thousand Italians, for example, were brought over to join the construction team. The Italians pictured here are part of a “dirt train”—men who loaded excess soil onto boxcars that pulled up to the construction site—according to the margin notes. Having a multinational workforce brought in from various places outside Panama reduced the risk for managers that the labourers would organise and strike. Each group feared losing its position to another. Photo: Ernest Hallen

1885. Workers gather to receive their wages. IMAGE: SSPL/GETTY IMAGES

1885. Jamaican labourers push a wagon of earth along a narrow-gauge railroad. IMAGE: SSPL/GETTY IMAGES

Early European explorers of the Americas identified the narrow band of land between northern and southern America as an ideal place to construct a canal to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Various European colonists from the Central America area tabled a plethora of ideas for the construction of such a canal.

Any such canal would shorten the journey for both European and US merchant ships travelling east from the Californian coast. Without a canal, any ships setting sail had to endure the complicated and often dangerous trip around the southern peninsula of South America, taking in the notoriously difficult Cape Horn.

When, in the late 19th century, the construction of the canal was taken over by the United States from the French — a secondary benefit of easier, faster naval mobility between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was added to the existing attractions a completed canal would offer.

With the technical advances of the late 19th century and increased pressure from the industrial powerhouses of Europe and the United States, the decision to begin construction was taken.

The initial construction project was based on a complicated sea-level canal – essentially a tidal canal. However, the construction process for this idea hit difficulties and the project was scrapped.

It was the French who began and later shelved the excavation of their sea-level canal scheme. But it was the industrialist new president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, who in 1901 declared that a Central American canal was of the utmost importance – militarily and commercially. This was following the recent loss of USS Maine during the U.S. defence of American assets during Cuba’s revolt of the Spanish, and the ensuing Spanish-American War.

The U.S acquired the ‘Panama Canal’ project from the French for $40 million. Colombia signed a treaty with the U.S. granting permission to construct the canal through their sovereign territory. However, the Colombian Senate would not ratify the treaty. In a controversial move, the U.S offered Panamanian rebels, who wanted independence from Colombia, $10 million if they proclaimed their independence. The U.S then offered military assistance by stationing a warship in their territorial waters to dissuade Colombia from military action. On November 3, 1903, Panama declared its independence without any interference from Colombia. Three months later the Panamanians granted control of the ‘Panama Canal Zone’ to the United States, having signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty. The United States set to work on the canal without further delay.

Nov. 10, 1912. The Miraflores lower locks under construction. IMAGE: SSPL/GETTY IMAGES

The ground was broken by the French in 1880. Ferdinand de Lesseps headed the fundraising. His success with the Suez Canal helped him raise millions for the new project. Once engineers got to work designing the canal, it became evident that this undertaking would be far more difficult than digging a sea-level ditch through a sandy desert.

Though only about 40 miles wide at its narrowest point, the terrain of the isthmus was solid, rocky and mountainous in places. The proposed canal route was intersected by powerful rivers which would need to be diverted. And most significantly, tropical diseases were a tremendous health hazard for labourers.

Nevertheless, de Lesseps pushed ahead with an optimistic plan for a sea-level canal to be completed in only six years at an estimated cost of $120 million. A labour force of 40,000 men was assembled, composed almost entirely of workers from the West Indies, joined by engineers from France.

In 1881, construction began.


November 1913. Workers contend with the aftermath of a landslide. IMAGE: TOPICAL PRESS AGENCY/GETTY IMAGES

The project was a disaster. It quickly became obvious that a sea-level canal was impossible, and that building sets of locks leading to an elevated canal was the only workable plan. De Lesseps stubbornly stuck to the sea-level plan.

Meanwhile, labourers and engineers were dying of malaria, yellow fever and dysentery, and construction was frustrated by frequent floods and mudslides. By the time the raised-locks plan was adopted, it was already too late. An estimated 22,000 workers had died. The project was years behind schedule and hundreds of millions over budget.

The company went bankrupt and collapsed, ruining 800,000 investors. De Lesseps was convicted of fraud and maladministration in 1893 and died in disgrace two years later.

With covert encouragement from the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia and rewarded the U.S. with the rights to the canal. The next year, with President Theodore Roosevelt eager to advance strategic interests in the region, the U.S. purchased the remains of the French company and got digging.

When their construction efforts faltered and funds ran out, Americans—spearheaded by President Teddy Roosevelt—bought the rights and took over the task in 1904. As president from 1901 to 1909, Theodore Roosevelt believed America had a big role to play in the world.  One good example is his push to have the U.S. build the Panama Canal. It was perilous work. An estimated 20,000 labourers’ lives were lost—many to diseases, including yellow fever and malaria—during the French period of construction alone.

c. 1910. A mosquito exterminator at work in the canal zone. IMAGE: BAIN NEWS SERVICE/LIBRARY OF CONGRESS


c. 1910. A railroad is displaced after a landslide. IMAGE: DETROIT PUBLISHING COMPANY/LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Following the failure of a French construction team in the 1880s, the United States commenced building a canal across a 50-mile stretch of the Panama isthmus in 1904.

Contending with the same disease problems as the French, the Americans embarked on an aggressive mosquito extermination campaign. (The link between malaria and mosquitoes was still a very new theory.) This drastically reduced the instances of sickness and improved productivity.

After a few years contending with inadequate machinery and infrastructure, excavation ramped up, and the canal began to take shape.

The project was helped by the elimination of disease-carrying mosquitoes, while chief engineer John Stevens devised innovative techniques and spurred the crucial redesign from a sea-level to a lock canal. His successor, Lt. Col. George Washington Goethals, stepped up excavation efforts of a stubborn mountain range and oversaw the building of the dams and locks. Opened in 1914, oversight of the world-famous Panama Canal was transferred from the U.S. to Panama in 1999.

June 1913. One of the deepest points of the Culebra Cut. IMAGE: CORBIS

c. 1900. Workers clear earth by hand. IMAGE: UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD/CORBIS

The idea of creating a water passage across the isthmus of Panama to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans dates back to at least the 1500s when King Charles I of Spain tapped his regional governor to survey a route along the Chagres River. The realisation of such a route across the mountainous, jungle terrain was deemed impossible at the time, although the idea remained tantalising as a potential shortcut from Europe to eastern Asia.

France was ultimately the first country to attempt the task. Led by Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, the builder of the Suez Canal in Egypt, the construction team broke ground on a planned sea-level canal in 1880. The French soon comprehended the monumental challenge ahead of them: Along with the incessant rains that caused heavy landslides, there was no effective means of combating the spread of yellow fever and malaria. De Lesseps belatedly realised that a sea-level canal was too difficult and reorganised efforts toward a lock canal, but funding was pulled from the project in 1888.

Following the deliberations of the U.S. Isthmian Canal Commission and a push from President Theodore Roosevelt, the U.S. purchased the French assets in the canal zone for $40 million in 1902. When a proposed treaty over rights to build in what was then a Colombian territory was rejected, the U.S. threw its military weight behind a Panamanian independence movement, eventually negotiating a deal with the new government in 1903 that gave them rights in perpetuity to the canal zone.

November 1910. President William Howard Taft (left) visits the Gatun Locks with Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes (seated right) and Chief Engineer Colonel George Goethals (standing right). IMAGE: CORBIS

January 1907. Earth is excavated at the site of the Gatun Locks. IMAGE: CORBIS

Seemingly not grasping the lessons from the French effort, the Americans devised plans for a sea-level canal along the roughly 50-mile stretch from Colón to Panama City. The project officially commenced with a dedication ceremony on May 4, 1904, but chief engineer John Wallace encountered immediate problems. Much of the French equipment was in need of repair, while the spread of yellow fever and malaria was frightening off the workforce. Under pressure to keep construction moving forward, Wallace instead resigned after a year.

A railroad specialist named John Stevens took over as chief engineer in July 1905 and immediately addressed the workforce issues by recruiting West Indian labourers. Stevens ordered new equipment and devised efficient methods to speed up work, such as the use of a swinging boom to lift chunks of railroad track and adjust the train route for carting away excavated material. He also quickly recognised the difficulties posed by landslides and convinced Roosevelt that a lock canal was best for the terrain.

The project was helped immensely by chief sanitary officer Dr William Gorgas, who believed that mosquitoes carried the deadly diseases indigenous to the area. Gorgas embarked on a mission to wipe out the carriers, his team painstakingly fumigating homes and cleansing pools of water. The last reported case of yellow fever on the Isthmus came in November 1905, while malaria cases dropped precipitously over the following decade.

1913. Locks under construction. IMAGE: CORBIS

1913. Engineers stand in front of the massive gates of the canal locks. IMAGE: CORBIS

1913. Trains and cranes intersect at the Pedro Miguel Locks. IMAGE: CORBIS

1913. Workers take a break atop the canal locks. IMAGE: CORBIS

Although construction was on track when President Roosevelt visited the area in November 1906, the project suffered a setback when Stevens suddenly resigned a few months later. Incensed, Roosevelt named Army Corps engineer Lt. Col. George Washington Goethals the new chief engineer, granting him authority over virtually all administrative matters in the building zone. Goethals proved a no-nonsense commander by squashing a work strike after taking charge, but he also oversaw the addition of facilities to improve the quality of life for workers and their families.

Goethals focused efforts on Culebra Cut, the clearing of the mountain range between Gamboa and Pedro Miguel. Excavation of the nearly 9-mile stretch became an around-the-clock operation, with up to 6,000 men contributing at any one time. Despite the attention paid to this phase of the project, Culebra Cut was a notorious danger zone, as casualties mounted from unpredictable landslides and dynamite explosions.

Construction of the locks began with the pouring of concrete at Gatún in August 1909. Built in pairs, with each chamber measuring 110 feet wide by 1,000 feet long, the locks were embedded with culverts that leveraged gravity to raise and lower water levels. Ultimately, the three locks along the canal route lifted ships 85 feet above sea level, to man-made Gatún Lake in the middle. Hollow, buoyant lock gates were also built, varying in height from 47 to 82 feet. The entire enterprise was powered by electricity and run through a control board.

November 1912. A view of the upper locks of the Gatun Locks, looking north toward the Atlantic Ocean. IMAGE: CORBIS

The grand project began drawing to a close in 1913. Two steam shovels working from opposite directions met in the centre of Culebra Cut in May, and a few weeks later, the last spillway at Gatún Dam was closed to allow the lake to swell to its full height. In October, President Woodrow Wilson operated a telegraph at the White House that triggered the explosion of Gamboa dyke, flooding the final stretch of the dry passageway at Culebra Cut.

The Panama Canal officially opened on August 15, 1914, although the planned grand ceremony was downgraded due to the outbreak of WWI. Completed at a cost of more than $350 million, it was the most expensive construction project in U.S. history to that point. Altogether, some 3.4 million cubic meters of concrete went into building the locks, and nearly 240 million cubic yards of rock and dirt were excavated during the American construction phase.

Bolstered by the addition of Madden Dam in 1935, the Panama Canal proved a vital component to expanding global trade routes in the 20th century. The transition to local oversight began with a 1977 treaty signed by U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Panama leader Omar Torrijos, with the Panama Canal Authority assuming full control on December 31, 1999. Recognised by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world in 1994, the canal hosted its 1 millionth passing ship in September 2010.

1906. President Theodore Roosevelt sits in the cab of a crane during a visit to the canal construction site. IMAGE: CORBIS

April 8, 1910. A man stands on the west bank overlooking the construction of the Pedro Miguel Locks. IMAGE: CORBIS

Gatun Upper Lock—West Chamber.

October 1913. The gates of the Miraflores Locks open for testing. IMAGE: BETTMANN/CORBIS

While most of the Army engineers who had worked on the canal were there in 1914, one was missing. Lieutenant Colonel David DuBose Gaillard left Panama in 1913 to seek medical attention in the United States. He died in Baltimore on 5 December 1913 of a brain tumour, and in April 1915 President Woodrow Wilson renamed Culebra Cut as Gaillard Cut in his honour.

There were rewards and honours for all for completing the canal, highlighted by the March 1915 promotions of George W. Goethals and Harry F. Hodges to major general and William Sibert to brigadier general. The completion of the Canal in 1914 made Goethals an American hero and international celebrity. After serving as the Canal Zone’s first governor, he retired in 1916 as a major general. He returned to active duty during World War I, at which time he became acting quartermaster general and head of the War Department’s Division of Purchase, Storage, and Traffic, in which capacities the hard-driving Goethals performed logistical miracles. Returning to civilian life he served as consulting engineer for a number of important operations, including the Port Authority of New York.

In the end, the canal was a 51-mile-long, 10-mile-wide system of locks that cut across Panama—from Limón Bay at Colón to the Bay of Panama at Balboa—to join the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

By August 15, 1914, the Panama Canal was officially opened by the passing of the SS Ancon. At the time, no single effort in American history had exacted such a price in dollars or in human life. It took 34 years for the initial effort in 1880 to actually open the Canal in 1914. It is estimated that over 80,000 persons took part in the construction and that over 30,000 lives were lost in both French and American efforts.

GATON UPPER LOCKS, AUGUST 5, 1911. Here, workers construct the Gaton Upper Locks on August 5, 1911. Eighty-two-feet high, each door weighs 750 tonnes. Photo: Ernest Hallen

Ernest Hallen was hired by the U.S. government as the Panama Canal’s official photographer. Hallen was tasked with capturing every stage of the canal’s construction and, afterwards, its operation and maintenance. The job, begun in 1907, lasted for 30 years. Over its course, Hallen took more than 16,000 photographs.

“There had been a lot of questions in the U.S. about the expense of a major overseas project like the Panama Canal,” says Paul Losch, who helps oversee the Panama Canal Collection at the University of Florida library. “The photographs were part of a public-relations campaign to show people back home that work was getting done.”

American ships use the canal the most, followed by those from China, Chile, Japan, Colombia and South Korea. Every vessel that transits the canal must pay a toll based on its size and cargo volume. Tolls for the largest ships can run about $450,000. The smallest toll ever paid was 36 cents, plunked down in 1928 by American adventurer Richard Halliburton, who swam the canal. Today, some $1.8 billion in tolls are collected annually.

On average, it takes a ship 8 to 10 hours to pass through the canal. While moving through it, a system of locks raises each ship 85 feet above sea level. Ship captains aren’t allowed to transit the canal on their own; instead, a specially trained canal pilot takes navigational control of each vessel to guide it through the waterway. In 2010, the 1 millionth vessel crossed the canal since it first opened in 1914.

THE FIRST BOAT THROUGH. Printed in the February 1914 issue of National Geographic in a second story titled “The Panama Canal,” this photo shows the first vessel—a tugboat christened the Gatun—to travel through the manmade waterway’s locks. It made the journey on September 26, 1913. By August 15 of the following year, the canal was completely navigable and open for business. Photo: Ernest Hallen

In the years after the canal opened, tensions increased between America and Panama over control of the canal and the surrounding Canal Zone. In 1964, Panamanians rioted after being prevented from flying their nation’s flag next to a U.S. flag in the Canal Zone. In the aftermath of the violence, Panama temporarily broke off diplomatic relations with the United States. In 1977, President Jimmy Carter and General Omar Torrijos of Panama signed treaties that transferred control of the canal to Panama in 1999 but gave the United States the right to use military force to defend the waterway against any threat to its neutrality. Despite opposition by a number of politicians who didn’t want their country to give up its authority over the canal, the U.S. Senate ratified the Torrijos-Carter Treaties by a narrow margin in 1978. Control of the canal was transferred peacefully to Panama in December 1999, and the Panamanians have been responsible for it ever since.

Building the Panama Canal, 1903–1914 – Office of the Historian

Panama Canal – Facts & Summary –

Building the Panama Canal | History Today

How the Panama Canal helped make the U.S. a world power | PBS …

Panama Canal Construction – 1903-1914 –

The Building of the Panama Canal – American History USA

The Panama Canal []

Relive the Panama Canal’s colossal construction in photos – Mashable

Picture Archive: Building the Panama Canal, 1900s

Panama Canal History – Panama Canal Facts

Incredible pictures that show the construction of the Panama Canal in …

Army Engineers and the Building of the Panama Canal, 1907 – 1914

The Panama Canal – Digital Public Library of America

Panama Direct: How the Panama Canal was built – BBC News

10 of History’s Deadliest Construction Projects – Gizmodo

Tropical Diseases and the Construction of the Panama Canal, 1904 …

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