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According to author A.E. Hotchner, Ernest Hemingway considered his first wife Hadley — seen here — to be the love of his life. 03 September 1921 Horton’s Bay, Michigan
Wedding of Hadley Richardson and Ernest Hemingway. L-R: Carol Hemingway, Ursula Hemingway, Hadley Richardson Hemingway, Ernest Hemingway, Grace Hall Hemingway, Leicester Hemingway, Dr C. E. Hemingway. Photograph in the Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library, Boston.

Ernest Hemingway

 Ernest Hemingway, American Nobel Prize-winning author, was one of the most celebrated and influential literary stylists of the twentieth century. His critical reputation rests solidly upon a small body of exceptional writing, set apart by its style, emotional content, and dramatic intensity of vision.

He was born into the hands of his physician father. He was the second of six children of Dr Clarence Hemingway and Grace Hemingway (the daughter of English immigrants). His father’s interests in history and literature, as well as his outdoorsy hobbies (fishing and hunting), became a lifestyle for Ernest. His mother was a domineering type who wanted a daughter, not a son, and dressed Ernest as a girl and called him Ernestine.

Hemingway’s early years were spent largely in fighting the feminine influence of his mother while feeding off the influence of his father. He spent the summers with his family in the woods of northern Michigan, where he often accompanied his father on professional calls.

His mother also had a habit of abusing his quiet father, who suffered from diabetes. The discovery of his father’s apparent lack of courage, later depicted in the short story “The Doctor and the Doctor’s Wife,” and his suicide several years later left the boy with an emotional scar.

Ernest later described the community in his hometown as one having “wide lawns and narrow minds.”

The Hemingway family in 1905 (from the left): Marcelline, Sunny, Clarence, Grace, Ursula, and Ernest.

Hemingway in uniform in Milan, 1918. He drove ambulances for two months until he was wounded. Milan, 1918. Ernest Hemingway, American Red Cross volunteer. Portrait by Ermeni Studios, Milan, Italy. Please credit “Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston”.

Despite the intense pleasure, Hemingway took from outdoor life and his popularity in high school—where he distinguished himself as a scholar and athlete—he ran away from home twice.

In 1916 Hemingway graduated from high school and began his writing career as a reporter for The Kansas City Star. There he adopted his minimalist style by following the Star’s style guide: “Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative.”

However, his first real chance for escape came in 1917, when the United States entered World War I (1914–18; a war in which forces clashed for European control). Eager to serve his country in the war, he volunteered for active service in the infantry (foot soldiers) but was rejected because of eye trouble.

Hemingway then enlisted in the Red Cross medical service, driving an ambulance on the Italian front. He was badly wounded in the knee yet carried a wounded man on his back a considerable distance to the aid station. After having over two hundred shell fragments (parts of bullets) removed from his legs and body, Hemingway next enlisted in the Italian infantry, served on the Austrian front until the armistice (truce), and was decorated for bravery by the Italian government. Hemingway soon returned home where he was hailed as a hero.

He was awarded the Silver Medal. Back in America, he continued his writing career working for Toronto Star. At that time he met Hadley Richardson and the two married in 1921.

When Haley Richardson met Hemingway at an October party in Chicago in1920, he was 21 and she was a shy, 28-year-old spinster, who’d spent the previous eight years in a state of nervous collapse. Grief-stricken over the death of her eldest sister, who had died in a fire while pregnant with her third child, Richardson had dropped out of Bryn Mawr College and lived at home in St. Louis with her domineering mother, doing little but reading and practising the piano, for which she had significant talent. Throughout this period, she flirted with suicide, which haunted her family, as it did Hemingway’s. When she was 13, her father, an alcoholic failed businessman, shot himself to death, just as Hemingway’s father would in 1928. Richardson and Hemingway also each had a brother who would commit suicide.

Even after falling in love with Hemingway—a “great explosion into life,” as she called it — Richardson occasionally thought of ending her life. In the summer of 1921, oppressed by the stultifying Midwest heat, she wrote Hemingway about viewing a fierce rainstorm from the porch of her family house: “(I) watched the foliage whisked into wild shapes by the wind and smelled the drenched cool grasses and let the thunder claps terrify me and the lightning cut me blind and when I went out I didn’t see how to go about anything I have to do and wished lazily the lightning might settle the whole shebang for me.”


Ernest, Hadley, and their son Jack (“Bumby”) in Schruns, Austria, 1926, just months before they separated.

Ernest and Pauline Hemingway in Paris, 1927.

When he returned to Michigan he had already decided to commit himself to fiction writing. His excellent journalism and the publication in magazines of several experimental short stories had impressed the well-known author Sherwood Anderson (1876–1941), who, when Hemingway decided to return to Europe, gave him letters of introduction to Gertrude Stein (1846–1946) and Ezra Pound (1885–1972)—two American writers living in Europe. Hemingway and his bride, Hadley Richardson, journeyed to Paris, where he learned much from these two well-known authors. Despite his lack of money and poor living conditions, these were the happiest years of Hemingway’s life, as well as the most artistically productive.

In 1923 Hemingway published his first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems. The poems are insignificant, but the stories give a strong indication of his emerging genius. With In Our Time (1925), Hemingway drew on his experiences while summering in Michigan to depict the initiation into the world of pain and violence of young Nick Adams, a model for later Hemingway heroes.

Hemingway returned to the United States in 1926 with the manuscripts of two novels and several short stories. That May, Scribner’s issued Hemingway’s second novel, The Sun Also Rises. This novel, the major statement of the “lost generation,” describes a group of Americans and Englishmen, all of whom have suffered physically and emotionally during the war.

In December 1929 A Farewell to Arms was published. This novel tells the story of a tragic love affair between an American soldier and an English nurse set against the backdrop of war and collapsing world order. It contains a philosophical expression of the Hemingway code that man is basically helpless in a violent age: “The world breaks everyone,” reflects the main character, “and afterwards many are strong in the broken places. But those that it will not break it kills. It kills the very good and the very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of those you can be sure that it will kill you too, but there will be no special hurry.”

Hemingway revealed his passionate interest in bull-fighting in Death in the Afternoon (1932), a humorous and unique nonfiction study. Hemingway’s African safari in 1934 provided the material for another nonfiction work, The Green Hills of Africa (1935), as well as two of his finest short stories, “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro.”

In 1940 Hemingway published For Whom the Bell Tolls, his most ambitious novel. A wonderfully clear narrative, it is written in less lyrical and more dramatic prose (non-poetry writing) than his earlier work.

American author and journalist Ernest Hemingway with his second wife Pauline Pfeiffer.

Ernest and Mary Hemingway on safari in Africa, 1953-1954. Photograph in the Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

Ernest Hemingway with Lady Duff Twysden, Hadley, and friends, during the July 1925 trip to Spain that inspired The Sun Also Rises.

Boxer, bullfighter, Boozer and occasional bruiser: no wonder we think of Ernest Hemingway as a man’s man. But the writer was a woman’s man, too. From the age of 21, and for 40 serially (semi-) monogamous years, Ernest Hemingway was virtually always married—plunging like a half-blinded bull from the disastrous end of one marriage (there were four altogether) to the heady, precipitous beginning of the next, he was never without a female companion.

Forty years later, it was his fourth wife, Mary, who told the world he had shot himself in their Idaho home.

In his love letters, he wrote to his wives  are ‘squelchy with baby language, pillow talk, sweet nothings and pet names like “kitty cat.” ‘He would call himself “your sweet feathered kitten”, or “big mountain” writing to “small friend”

Ernest and his first wife, Hadley Richardson, were married fewer than five years when he took up with Pauline Pfeiffer, a fashion editor for Vogue magazine in Paris who was a good friend to them both. Pauline was Catholic and intent on marriage, and the two became tacitly engaged before Hadley was fully conscious of the affair. Even then, Ernest didn’t want to give up either woman. Ultimately, it was Hadley who backed away, believing that she couldn’t force Ernest to stay with her if he were truly in love with another.

Although Hadley was far too generous and compassionate a woman to see things this way, Pauline got her comeuppance in 1936, when the tawny-haired and coltish Martha Gellhorn walked into Hemingway’s then-lair, the dimly lit Key West bar, Sloppy Joes. When introductions were made, he recognised her as the author of the recently published and highly acclaimed novella, The Trouble I’ve Seen, which critics were comparing to his work (“Her writing burns,” wrote Lewis Gannett, “…Hemingway does not write more authentic American speech”). Coincidentally, she was from St. Louis, where both Hadley and Pauline had lived and been schooled. And then there were her lovely shoulders in a black sundress and the legs that went on forever. Pauline had prepared a lovely crawfish dinner for him that night and was forced to make excuses to their guests when he didn’t come home.

It’s ironic or entirely right that in To Have and Have Not, Hemingway has a female character issue a warning to all women expecting monogamy from husbands who “aren’t built that way”:

“They want someone new, or someone younger, or someone that they shouldn’t have, or someone that looks like someone else…Or they just get tired, I suppose. You can’t blame them if that’s the way they are…The better you treat a man and the more you show him you love him the quicker he gets tired of you. I suppose the good ones are made to have a lot of wives but it’s awfully wearing trying to be a lot of wives yourself.”

Pauline had tried hard to be enough wives, herself, to secure her place in Ernest’s life, setting out to run his household so splendidly he needn’t concern himself at all. He didn’t. And though it’s easy to read the above lines as advance notice from Ernest to Pauline, it might also have served to forewarn Martha, who was unseated by the fourth Mrs Hemingway, Mary Welsh, four years into her own marriage, in 1944.

If you believe what you read, Hemingway threw Martha over because he couldn’t stand that she had brains and bravery to boot—that she had too much of the “grace under pressure” she’d learned by his side in the Spanish Civil War. But it’s just as possible that Hemingway “wasn’t built” for monogamy, but for extremity, and that no one could have kept him from falling for the next someone else. And the next.

Hemingway clearly needed to live at the edge of experience, in that contracted space where life felt like war and was a kind of war. His work was always better when he was emotionally under siege, and in the space just after. “How swell life gets,” he wrote, “once the hell is over.”

It’s long been in fashion to believe that Hemingway hated women—but closer to the truth, I think, that he only wished he did. So he could be free of his attraction to them and his involvement with them, and be rid of the dread and desperation that came when no attachment, no matter how tender or passionate, managed to “kill his loneliness.”

Each of his wives was magnificent in her own way. If Hadley was the patient and nurturing saint, Pauline was the intelligent general, well-oiled, endlessly competent. Martha was the soldier, the tiger, with her own books and fierce ambitions. Mary was long-suffering, loyal to the catastrophic end. He loved them each deeply and inexpertly. He also loved himself inexpertly.

He was mercurial, volatile, extreme and did terrible things,’ The Hemingway women were, though of their time, absolutely not pushovers. They were all independent, feisty, fearless and clever.’

If he had been a monster all the time, it’s not thought any of them would have stuck around. There must have been incredible depths of charisma. And the young Hemingway was, of course, jaw-droppingly handsome.’

All the wives but Fife survived him. All but Gellhorn became friends. But these women had had more in common than just a dashing, talented husband: Mary, Martha and Hadley were all from St Louis, where Martha’s father had been Hadley’s gynaecologist.

In Mary’s phrase, they were all “graduates of the Hemingway University.”

Hemingway with his third wife Martha Gellhorn, posing with General Yu Hanmou, Chungking, China, 1941.

November 1946 Ernest Hemingway and sons Patrick (left) and Gregory, with cats Good Will, Princessa, and Boise. Finca Vigia (Hemingway home), San Francisco de Paula, Cuba. Photograph in the Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

Following the critical and popular success of For Whom the Bell Tolls, Hemingway lapsed into a literary silence that lasted a full decade and was largely the result of his strenuous, frequently reckless, activities during World War II (1939–45; a war in which France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States fought against Germany, Italy, and Japan). In 1942, as a Collier’s correspondent with the Third Army, he witnessed some of the bloodiest battles in Europe. At this time he received the nickname of “Papa” from his admirers, both military and literary.

In 1944 while in London, Hemingway met and soon married Mary Welsh, a Time reporter. His three previous marriages—to Hadley Richardson, mother of one son; to Pauline Pfeiffer, mother of his second and third sons; and to Martha Gelhorn—had all ended in divorce. Following the war, Hemingway and his wife purchased a home, Finca Vigiacutea, near Havana, Cuba.

Circa 1960’s. Ernest Hemingway visited Key West for the first time in 1928. The home was abandoned due to the Tift family’s struggle to stake claims on the estate. But, even being abandoned and boarded up the home caught Ernest and Pauline’s eye. Hemmingway purchased the property in 1931 for $8,000 in back taxes from the City of Key West.

Hemingways House in Key West, Florida, 907 Whitehead Street and nestled in the heart of Old Town Key West, the Ernest Hemingway Home and Museum was home to one of America’s most honoured and respected authors.

It was on the advice of John Dos Passos, a fellow member of the “Lost Generation” of expatriate artists and writers populating Paris during the 1920s, that Hemingway was first prompted to visit Key West. Hemingway did not go directly to South Florida from Paris but rather arrived through Havana, Cuba—a city and country that would prove to be critically important in Hemingway’s later personal and professional life.

Upon his arrival in Key West in April 1928, the first order of business was to locate the new Ford Roadster that Pauline Hemingway’s wealthy Uncle Gus had so generously purchased for the newlywed couple. Because the car had been delayed in transit, the Ford dealership insisted that they take up residence in an apartment located above the showroom on Simonton Street. Ernest and Pauline accepted the offer, and he resumed work on a war story he had started on the ocean passage to Key West. Hemingway continued his Paris habits of writing during the early mornings and taking the time to explore his surroundings in the afternoons. The Hemingways spent three weeks waiting for their car, and it was during this very brief three-week interlude that Ernest—amazingly—finished the partially autobiographical novel about the First World War, “A Farewell To Arms.”

Soon after arrival, Hemingway made the acquaintance of Charles Thompson, who ran the local hardware store. Charles Thompson introduced Hemingway to the exciting world of big game sport fishing, and a long friendship was born. Charles and his wife Lorine entertained the Hemingways at their home on Fleming Street. Lorine Thompson proved to be as friendly and gracious as her husband Charles, and it was during those early days in Key West she and Pauline forged a friendship that would endure for the rest of their lives. Both Ernest and Pauline grew to love Key West and its inhabitants and soon decided to look for a permanent residence. After two seasons in Key West, Pauline’s Uncle Gus purchased the house on Whitehead Street for them in 1931.

The Hemingway home was built in 1851 in the Spanish Colonial style and was constructed of native rock hewn from the grounds. The home was in great disrepair when it the Hemingways took ownership, but both Ernest and Pauline could see beyond the rubble and ruin and appreciated the grand architecture and stateliness of the home. The massive restoration and remodelling they undertook in the early 1930’s turned the home into the National Historical Landmark that thousands of tourists visit and enjoy today.

A unique and extraordinary feature of the grounds is the pool, built in 1937-38, at the staggering cost of $20,000. It was the first in-ground pool in Key West and the only pool within 100 miles. The exorbitant construction costs once prompted Hemingway to take a penny from his pocket, press it into the wet cement of the surrounding patio, and announce jokingly, “Here, take the last penny I’ve got!”

Hemingway in the cabin of his boat Pilar, off the coast of Cuba. War wounds, two plane crashes, four marriages and several affairs took their toll on Hemingway’s hereditary predispositions and contributed to his declining health. He was diagnosed with bipolar disorder and insomnia in his later years. His mental condition was exacerbated by chronic alcoholism, diabetes and liver failure. After an unsuccessful treatment with electroconvulsive therapy, he suffered severe amnesia and his physical condition worsened.

The Hemingways’ personal touches still abound throughout the house. Many of the unique furnishings are European antiques collected during their stay on the continent. The trophy mounts and skins were souvenirs of the Hemingways’ African safaris and numerous hunting expeditions in the American West. Ernest’s presence can still be felt in his studio where he produced some of his most well-known works. In addition, a very visible and living link to the past are the descendants of Hemingway’s cats. The story goes that Hemingway made the acquaintance of a sea captain who owned an unusual six-toed tomcat, which captured Ernest’s fancy. Upon his departure from Key West, the captain presented the cat to Hemingway. Today many of the numerous cats that inhabit the grounds still possess the unusual six toes.

Ernest’s friends Charles Thompson, Joe Russell (also known as Sloppy Joe), and Capt. Eddie “Bra” Saunders, together with his old Paris friends became known in Key West as “The Mob.” The Mob would go fishing in the Dry Tortugas, Bimini, and Cuba for days and weeks at a time in pursuit of giant tuna and marlin. Everyone in The Mob had a nickname, and Hemingway was often referred to by his friends and family during this time was “Papa”—it was a moniker that eventually stuck with him throughout his life. Hemingway’s Key West was a town, unlike any place he ever experienced. It was filled with interesting people, ranging from well-to-do businessmen and lawyers to down-on-their-luck fishermen, to shipwreck salvagers. Throughout his career, Hemingway freely used the people and places he encountered in his literary works, and many Key Westers appear as characters in his novel “To Have and Have Not,” a novel about Key West during the Great Depression.

Ernest and Pauline divorced in 1940, Hemingway took up residence in Cuba with his third wife, Martha Gellhorn. He continued to visit Key West during the 40’s and 50’s until death in 1961. Throughout the years, Key West has been home to many writers and artists, but none whose presence and influence is as profound as Ernest Hemingway’s.

Hemingway with Col. Charles ‘Buck’ Lanham in Germany, 1944, during the fighting in Hürtgenwald, after which he became ill with pneumonia.

Through the end of the 1950s, Hemingway continued to rework the material that would be published as A Moveable Feast. In mid-1959, he visited Spain to research a series of bullfighting articles commissioned by Life magazine. Life wanted only 10,000 words, but the manuscript grew out of control. Unable to organise his writing for the first time in his life, he asked A. E. Hotchner to travel to Cuba to help him. Hotchner helped him trim the Life piece down to 40,000 words, and Scribner’s agreed to a full-length book version (The Dangerous Summer) of almost 130,000 words. Hotchner found Hemingway to be “unusually hesitant, disorganised, and confused”, and suffering badly from failing eyesight.

On July 25, 1960, Hemingway and Mary left Cuba, never to return. During the summer of 1960, he set up a small office in his New York City’s apartment and attempted to work. Hemingway left New York City for good soon after. Hemingway then travelled alone to Spain to be photographed for the front cover for the Life magazine piece. A few days later, he was reported in the news to be seriously ill and on the verge of dying, which panicked Mary until she received a cable from him telling her, “Reports false. Enroute Madrid. Love Papa.

“However, he was seriously ill and believed himself to be on the verge of a breakdown. He was lonely and took to his bed for days, retreating into silence, despite having had the first instalments of The Dangerous Summer published in Life in September 1960 to good reviews. In October, he left Spain for New York, where he refused to leave Mary’s apartment on the pretext that he was being watched. She quickly took him to Idaho, where George Saviers (a Sun Valley physician) met them at the train.

At this time, Hemingway was constantly worried about money and his safety. He worried about his taxes, and that he would never return to Cuba to retrieve the manuscripts he had left there in a bank vault. He became paranoid, thinking the FBI was actively monitoring his movements in Ketchum. The FBI had, in fact, opened a file on him during World War II, when he used the Pilar to patrol the waters off Cuba, and J. Edgar Hoover had an agent in Havana watch Hemingway during the 1950s. By the end of November, Mary was at wits’ end, and Saviers suggested Hemingway go to the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, where he may have believed he was to be treated for hypertension.

The FBI knew Hemingway was at the Mayo Clinic, as an agent later documented in a letter written in January 1961. In an attempt at anonymity, Hemingway was checked in at the Mayo Clinic under Saviers’ name. Meyers writes that “an aura of secrecy surrounds Hemingway’s treatment at the Mayo”, but confirms he was treated with electroconvulsive therapy as many as 15 times in December 1960, and in January 1961 was “released in ruins”. Reynolds was able to access Hemingway’s records at the Mayo, which indicated that the combination of medications given to Hemingway may have created the depressive state for which he was treated.

A life-sized statue of Hemingway by José Villa Soberón, at El Floridita bar in Havana.

One afternoon in the late winter of 1961, while Hadley Richardson was vacationing at a ranch in Arizona with her second husband, she got a call from her first husband, Ernest Hemingway. Though the writer had spoken to Richardson rarely since their divorce in 1927 and seen her just once in 22 years, she remained his most enduring muse — the model for the alluring but wounded Hemingway heroine — and recently, he’d been thinking about her a lot. He was working on a memoir of their years together in Paris, and he asked her a few questions about details he couldn’t recall. It was a warm conversation, filled with shared memories of their youthful union and delight in their grown son, Jack.

Still, when Richardson hung up, she burst into tears. She heard something in his voice that profoundly disturbed her; she heard hollowness and defeat and despair. She knew the long decline that had begun when he left her for another woman so long ago had finally run its course, that he was moving closer to the moment when he would end his life.

A few months later—on July 2, 50 years ago Saturday — when Hemingway shot himself to death in the foyer of the Ketchum, Idaho, home he shared with his fourth wife, Mary, it was the culmination of decades of loss, of dying passion and diminished creativity — conditions he always associated with his betrayal of Richardson. “I wished I had died before I ever loved anyone but her,” he wrote unforgettably in “A Moveable Feast,” his lyrical memoir of their marriage and the last thing he worked on before his death.

In a way, he did die. When he left Richardson for the wealthy Vogue editor, Pauline Pfeiffer, who became his second wife, the boasting and cruelty that had always occupied corners of his personality began to take over. As the years passed, his drinking and physical problems increased, and — most dangerously for his mental health — his literary powers began to wane.

Of course, the seeds of his future suicide were there at the start of his career. As the person closest to Hemingway at the time, Richardson saw firsthand the depth of his anguish and his struggle to fight through it with work. She knew that his writing, which so captured the American imagination with its beauty and simplicity — the short, unadorned sentences, the sing-songy rhythms and elegylike repetitions that seemed to embody the power and romance of nature itself — was at its heart a defence against death.

In ardent letters, Hemingway poured out his pain to Richardson, so that even before their marriage she worried that he’d kill himself. “Not truly so low as to crave mortage (death) are you?” she wrote him on July 7, 1921. “The meanest thing I can say to you on that point is remember it would kill me to all intents and purposes … You gotta live — first for you and then for my happiness.”

Three months after Hemingway was released from Mayo Clinic, back in Ketchum, in April 1961, one morning in the kitchen Mary “found Hemingway holding a shotgun.” She called Saviers who sedated him and admitted him to the Sun Valley hospital; from there he was returned to the Mayo Clinic for more electroshock treatments. He was released in late June and arrived home in Ketchum on June 30. Two days later, in the early morning hours of July 2, 1961, Hemingway “quite deliberately” shot himself with his favourite shotgun. He had unlocked the A life-sized storeroom where his guns were kept, went upstairs to the front entrance foyer of their Ketchum home, and according to Mellow, with the “double-barrelled shotgun that he had used so often it might have been a friend”, he shot himself. Mary called the Sun Valley Hospital, and a doctor quickly arrived at the house. Despite his finding that Hemingway “had died of a self-inflicted wound to the head,” the initial story told to the press was that the death had been “accidental”.

The first thing Mary did — instead of calling for his doctor or the hospital — she got hold of the columnist at that time, Leonard Lyons, who was in Hollywood, got hold of him and said, would you please call the press for me and tell them that Papa was cleaning his gun, and it went off accidentally. So that was the prevailing story about how Hemingway had died.

Hemingway Memorial near Sun Valley.

During his final years, Hemingway’s behaviour had been similar to his father’s before he killed himself; his father may have had the genetic disease hemochromatosis, in which the inability to metabolise iron culminates in mental and physical deterioration. Medical records made available in 1991 confirm that Hemingway had been diagnosed with hemochromatosis in early 1961. His sister Ursula and his brother Leicester also killed themselves. Added to Hemingway’s physical ailments was the fact that he had been a heavy drinker for most of his life.

Family and friends flew to Ketchum for the funeral, officiated by the local Catholic priest who believed Hemingway’s death accidental. Of the funeral (during which an altar boy fainted at the head of the casket), Hemingway’s brother Leicester wrote: “It seemed to me Ernest would have approved of it all.” He is buried at Ketchum Cemetery.

In a press interview five years later, Mary Hemingway confirmed that her husband had shot himself.

In 1966, a memorial to Ernest Hemingway was placed just north of Sun Valley, above Trail Creek. It is inscribed with a eulogy Hemingway had written for a friend several decades earlier, which applied to him as well:

Best of all he loved the fall

the leaves yellow on cottonwoods

leaves floating on trout streams

and above the hills

the high blue windless skies

…Now he will be a part of them forever

 Hemingway left behind an impressive body of work and an iconic style that still influences writers today. His personality and constant pursuit of adventure loomed almost as large as his creative talent. Perhaps his true love could only ever be his work, which mattered more than living. When, at the end of his days, he lost his ability to write, his lifelong struggle with depression and thoughts of suicide overcame him, and there was no woman, and no amount of love, that could save him from himself.

When asked by George Plimpton about the function of his art, Hemingway proved once again to be a master of the “one true sentence”: “From things that have happened and from things as they exist and from all things that you know and all those you cannot know, you make something through your invention that is not a representation but a whole new thing truer than anything true and alive, and you make it alive, and if you make it well enough, you give it immortality.”

Hemingway in Love: His Own Story: A. E. Hotchner: 9781250077486 …

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‘Hemingway In Love’ Chronicles Papa’s Romantic Regrets : NPR

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